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Cancer: Chemoterapy and toxic drugs

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Chemo (Toxico) Therapy
by Karl Loren (abridged)

Introduction
The introduction of cytotoxic (chemo(toxico)therapy) chemical drugs into the (classic) therapeutic arsenal took place quite recently and may be traced back to the discovery, after World War II, of the anti-tumour effect of nitrogen mustard {methyl-bis (chloorethylamine), (NSC, 762, CIBA, BOOTS}. The aim of these (toxico)chemotherapeutic drugs was, and still is, to kill cancer cells left in tumours that can only partly, or not at all, be operated and/or irradiated; cancer cells left after surgical intervention; or those arrived in the bloodstreams. The absolute elimination of cancer cells remains the ultimate goal of chemo(toxico)therapy. According to the academic-medicine point of view, complete remission can only be realized if cancer cells are removed or killed. Consequently, the purpose is to eliminate a maximum number of cancer cells, even if this means the inevitable killing of a number of healthy cells. The chemo(toxico)therapeutic drugs (known so far) are not selective and destroy both sound and malignant cells. Therefore, they are cytotoxic (cell toxic) rather than tumour toxic. Throughout this work, we will contradict the assumption that cancer (disease) will be destroyed (the so-called regeneration ad integrum). As a matter of fact, more and more classic cancer researchers now start to dispute the belief in the efficiency of cancer cell destruction as the optimal way of curing cancer (12).

Whilst compiling this survey our major concern was to give the reader the clearest view possible of what is being concealed by the medical establishment. Therefore we have searched and reflected on the medical literature worldwide so that the reader is aware that the bibliographic examples we have selected represent merely the tip of a massive iceberg of what is being written in medical circles about chemo(toxico) therapeutics. The contents of these articles is of less importance to the reader as, in the majority of cases, the titles are more then self-explanatory.

The enumeration is far from complete and covers in the main short periods of time within the years mentioned. The proportion of medical articles on this subject that we have quoted is infinitesimally small and the anthology that is currently being presented is only a small fraction of the literature about the harmful side-effects of the 'remedies', compared to what has been published on the subject.

It is enough to envisage the cancer-producing effects of these drugs to urge the utmost caution, not to say suspicion, about this deadly therapeutic arsenal and those doctors who stubbornly promote it.

"There is only one disease of which doctors can always cure us: our credulity with respect to them" (J. Petit-Senn).

The purpose of this section is manifold. Its principal intention is to provide both patient and unspecialised general practitioner with insight into the classic therapeutic arsenal, the action of therapeutic agents and, more particularly, the many side-effects which they produce. This will enable the emancipated patient to decide consciously and with full knowledge of the facts, pro or against a specific therapy.

Indeed, 'specialists' tend to assume that the cancer patient is not emancipated; the patient must not be too well or too precisely informed, and he must actually 'undergo' the treatment willingly as this represents his only and best chance.

For this purpose, both statistics about prognoses, and side-effects of the therapeutic agents used, are obscured.

Statistics
Success statistics are being manipulated and fabricated in such an expert and subtle way that they give evidence of some manifest and significant progress in the fight against cancer. In medical circles, this systematic and large-scale deceit is excused by the concern 'not to cause panic' in cancer patients who do not have any serious alternative anyhow than walk the classic therapeutic way. It goes without saying that not only are all alternative ways of treatment en bloc rejected for being useless and even dangerous, but furthermore, the hypothesis that a patient would prefer n o t to be treated and, consequently, live the rest of his life in a qualitative more positive way, is considered to be non-existent. This is even more criminal because the fact that chemo(toxico)therapy would have any effect on cancer patients' life expectations, is far from being proven. On the contrary, comparative studies with non-treated patients have revealed that chemo(toxico) therapy does not produce any life-prolonging effects (1). Untreated patients appear to live (survive) at least as long as treated patients (2).

1. A first manipulation of cure statistics consists in the (theoretic) distinction which is made between early diagnosed and late discovered cancer. The first kind would be easy to treat and even curable, whereas only those cancers which are discovered (too) late would be fatal.

The patient-directed information provided by the different official national cancer institutes thus represent the various chances of recovery (= 5 years of survival), according to the fact whether cancer was discovered early or (too) late. For carcinoma of the lung, early discovery represents 75% chance of recovery, while later discovery only gives 20% chance. For carcinoma of the gullet, recovery (or better, remission) is possible in 50% of early diagnosed cases, but only in 2% (say two percent!) of late location. Stomach cancers are curable in 90% of cases with early diagnosis, but only in 10% if the disease is detected (too) late. Biliary duct cancer is curable in 25% with early diagnosis and in barely 2% with late diagnosis. Cancer of the intestine offer 80% chance of recovery with early discovery but only 30% if the diagnosis is carried out late. Cancers of female sexual organs offer 75 in 100 chances of being cured of the diagnosis takes place in time. With late diagnosis there are hardly 5 chances in 100 to reach the five years' limit. Breast cancers offer 85% and 25% respectively, kidney cancers 75% and 20%, prostate cancers 80% and 2 to 3% (!) according to early or late diagnosis. For bladder cancers, the chance of survival is 90% in the early stage and 15% in the late stage. Cancers of the osseous system may be remedied in 85% of cases when they were located early; otherwise, there is only a chance of 2%! Blood cancers and cancers of the haematopoietic system make a chance of 50% of remission with early detection and only 5% when the cancer is discovered late (3).

A suggested conclusion from the above is that cancer can indeed be remedied in a large percentage of cases ... if only it is detected in time. Figures are then quite hopeful: lung cancer 75% chances of survival, stomach cancer 90%, breast cancer 85%, bladder cancers 90%, etc. If, on the other hand, cancer is discovered in a late stage - but who would ever count himself among this category - figures are alarming : only very low percentages of survival chances.

The trick - or swindle - however consists in that the theoretic early-stage model upon which the entire favourable prognosis statistics are built, is unapproachable in practice. The hopeful early stage, which is referred to in the statistics, is situated at a level when the tumour hardly counts some 4000 cells and has reached a diameter of 0.06 cm. (i.e. after the 13th cell division). At this level, the first micro metastases are already developing, which will escape all forms of later classic therapy. This (real) early stage is purely theoretical because at this moment it is not (yet) possible to be located by means of current modern diagnostic methods. Only from the 21st cell division onwards, when the tumour counts two million cells and has acquired a diameter of 1 cm., diagnosis becomes feasible. However, even in the terminology used by the statistics, this is already considered to be a late stage and more alarming percentages of survival will occur. If one is lucky and has a diagnostic examination precisely at the moment when the tumour reaches the 21st cell division - a rarely occurring case - even then, the early stage indicated by statistics has been long exceeded and the category of very low percentages of survival has already been reached; 20% for carcinoma of the lung, 10% for carcinoma of the stomach, 2% for gullet cancer, etc.

These most alarmingly low figures apply in the majority of cases - the so-called early diagnosis is hardly over obtained - and represent, moreover, the real remission chances for the different forms of cancer. In a recent report, the World Health Organization (W.H.O.) (4) has confirmed that hardly any progress in the fight against cancer has been made over the past 25 years. Death following certain widely spread forms of cancer has even increased in a terrifying way.

Over the period 1960-1985 cancer mortality was compared in 28 industrial countries (5). It appeared that death due to cancer has increased in general by 58% for men, and by 40% for women. Today, 40% more men and 200% more women die from cancer of the lung than twenty-five years ago. The chance to die from breast cancer between the ages of 45 and 64 is nowadays 37% higher than in 1960 (6), and consequently, the number of cancer cases also increased in that proportion. If it had not been for this correction, mortality figures in 1985 would have been even higher. Only death as a consequence of stomach cancers has declined by 12% in 25 years. However, the W.H.O.-report does not ascribe this declined mortality with regard to stomach cancers to any therapeutic progress, but rather to improved living and eating patterns :

"In addition it would appear that such factors as non-specific life-style changes have been the major cause of decline in stomach cancer" (7).

2. A second manipulation of statistics is the introduction of an unscientific element in the statistic juggling of medicracy, namely the beginning of the five years' remission period. It is obvious that this period will be longer or shorter according to the fact whether the patient goes to see the doctor from the first suspicious moment, or only after he has experienced certain discomforts. In the first case - the hypochondriac patient - the remission period will start off much sooner than in the second case. Statistically, the first patient will therefore 'survive' longer than the second without the chemo(toxico)therapy (or other) treatment having anything to do with it. As far as statistics are concerned, however, it is the treatment which has facilitated the longer survival. This evidence which has incorporated in the remission statistics may be compared with the equally evident 'ascertainment' : the younger the person, the better his/her chance of a longer life. The latter evidence only differs from the former in that it was not elevated to a 'medical success'.

This supplementary deceit of figures helps, furthermore, to keep up the myth 'the earlier discovered, the better the chances of recovery. Indeed, the first patient in the above cited example was lucky to have an 'early' diagnosis and will therefore (?) survive longer. For the second patient, the diagnosis was set 'late' and therefore (?) he will not live as long. It goes without saying that the therapy has nothing to do with it and that the longer survival is only owing to the fact that the counting off was started sooner. Nevertheless, such cases are put on by the medical establishment in order to fortify therapy successes.

3. A third purposive and straight falsification of recovery statistics consists in the assumption that the 'remission' limit of five years is only reached thanks to chemo(toxico)therapy treatment. This results, in fact, in the postulation that untreated patients do not have any chance of reaching the 5 years' survival. This hypothesis is even more malicious because - as we mentioned before - investigation has revealed that untreated patient lived (survived) (at least) as long as chemo(toxico) therapy treated patient.

The real figure of recoveries can only be obtained by making the difference between the five years' chance of survival of all patients after treatment, and the five years' chance of survival of the same patient if they had been left untreated. Thus the effectiveness of treatment could be measured and quantified. In medical circles, however, natural survival with cancer is confused and put on a par with the effectiveness of a medical treatment. It is not without any cynicism that we remind of the fact that the medical establishment accepts and proclaims that cancer patients who are treated in the classic medical way 'survive', and owe this exclusively to the therapy they followed. When, on the other hand, differently or non-treated patients also 'survive' - and in much better circumstances - they are said to have experienced a 'spontaneous remission' ...

4. However, the medical lobby tends to use many more sophisms in order to prove their successes. Under the cover of 'preferring the certain to the uncertain', borderline or dubious cases have lately been diagnosed and treated more and more like cancers. In itself a noble motivation, of only the applied treatment were not as mutilating and its efficiency not as doubtful. So, for example, terms have been introduced for quasi-cancer diseases such as dysplasia (deformation), carcinoma in situ (cancer which has not yet broken enough the tissue structure), pre-carcinoma and micro-invasive cancers (8).

This enriched medical vocabulary describing quasi- and pseudo-cancers and, the inevitably ensuing confusion have already produced a terrifying number of unnecessary mutilating operations (especially in the genealogical sector and on either side of the female navel) (9) and even harmful chemo(toxico)therapeutic operations (10).

It goes without saying that if non-cancers, pseudo- and quasi-cancers are regarded as cancers 'by way of precaution', the chances of recovery increase with the number of thus diagnosed pseudo-cancers.

5. Another fatal consequence of this medicratic deceit may be illustrated by the following example. When, for example, an experienced physician succeeds in discovering by means of palpation, a mass with a diameter of hardly 1 cm. in the prostate gland which, after histopathological investigation appears to be a cancer, and if it is removed by surgery, the patient will probably reach the five years' limit and be declared free of cancer, thus adding another case to the list of medical successes. The danger that lurks in this diagnosis is that the micro metastisisation had already taken place before the operation (11) (during the operation, more malignant cells may have arrived into the bloodstreams (12)) and that a new pre-cancerous phase has been developed which most probably after five, but certainly within ten or fifteen years, will produce a new tumour, while classic therapy will be incapable of avoiding this. For indeed, the therapeutic arsenal of academic medicine is only armed against tumours and completely ignores the initial phase, the cancer disease which precedes the tumour phase. Biological alternative therapies on the other hand do have an eye for the cancerous disease and, for the pre-cancerous lead-up which takes many years, and claim to be capable of eliminating the disease in the pre-tumourous stage. However, medicracy usually deprives the cancer patient of this possibility. In this case, the alternative methods do not even enter the (private hunting-) field of academic medicine, because, as we have said before, classic therapy does not even claim to combat the pre-cancerous lead-up phase. Alternative approaches therefore are the only and, consequently, the best chances of preventing the 'cured' cancer from being succeeded by a new one. Nonetheless, this alternative is being denied to the 'cured' patient who takes his declaration of recovery much too literally and irrevocably.

Conclusion
As a conclusion we may openly accuse (and regret) that the medical world - for whatever reason or purpose - reverts to an unmitigated, subtle mechanism of falsification which it has been built into medical statistics, thus ascribing their pretended success - which rests on nothing else but deceit - to an irrevocably mutilating surgery and an undeniable toxic (and often cancer-producing and mutagenic) chemo- and radiotherapy.

This organized statistical deceit is built in on different levels with a synergistic falsifying effect. Recapitulating :

1. Unapproachably early diagnosed cancers would entail very high chances of remission - which are held out to the outside world - and 'only' the cancers which are discovered too late are almost always fatal. The real mortality of cancer is put under the cover of late discovered cancers : 80% mortality with carcinoma of the lung, 90% mortality with stomach cancer, 98% death risk with gullet cancer, etc. It is suggested moreover, that early diagnosis will drastically curtail these mortality figures, which would in effect be true if it would be possible, as far as methods, material and technique are concerned, to make 'early diagnoses', which is not the case with current medical possibilities.

2. The counting-off of the five years' remission period - and not some treatment method success - is decisive for the longer or the shorter period of survival.

3. The medical establishment confuses willingly or knowingly 'natural' chances of survival with therapeutic successes, a favour which they refuse to acknowledge when judging extra-medical successes.

4. Borderline and dubious (quasi- and pseudo-cancers) cases are 'by way of precaution' considered more and more as cancers, and successes increase proportionally with the wrongly diagnosed cancers. And again, this is a favour which is strongly denied to the alternative treatments : a patient 'cured' by the alternative way is surely a patient who had a 'dubious' or 'unreliable' cancer diagnosis.

5. To consider a remission of several years as free of cancer and a therapy success, when there is a good, to very good chance that a new pre-cancerosis has begun, precisely under the influence of (mutagenic and cancerigenic) radio- or chemotherapy which will break open vehemently - though after the blessed declaration of freedom of cancer - is a last described deceitful presentation on account of medical establishment.

Side-effects
In this section we intend to provide patients and doctors in good faith with a realistic picture of the therapy successes and their side-effects. For more than five years we have been sifting, exhaustively, classic medical literature, the result of which will be reflected in this chapter. It provides a realistic inside-look on chemo(toxico)therapy as it is known in medical circles, but which is carefully and systematically being concealed extra muros. For this deliberate suppression of essential information, the medical corps appeals once more to the unemancipated position of the patient who might perhaps prefer to be treated differently, or not at all, and long for a more worthy life-ending instead of the mutilated survival! The patient is deprived of this option in a well-orchestrated, Machiavellian way. The right to live becomes the duty to survive according to the rules of current medical art.

This section aims at refuting the myth that chemo(toxico)therapy would be the only efficient way to fight cancer. It is indispensable that the cancer patient knows, and realizes, that he may succumb to his chemo(toxico)therapeutic treatment, or contract a second cancer (most therapeutic agents are cancer-producing!) and that, if he is favoured with a 'survival period', he will certainly have to 'live' with numerous side-effects, going from banal digestive upsets, to haemorrhage, impairment (reversible or otherwise) of the blood image, marrow, liver, bladder, lung, heart, etc., not to mention the permanent (but well-founded) fear for mutagenic and cancer-producing side-effects of chemotherapy agents. Non-cancer patients may be confronted with these expected iatrogenic effects as well. Indeed, non-malignant (such as rheumatism, psoriasis) are 'treated' with such anti-cancer agents.

In a period when the right to self-determination, emancipation, women's right to decide on abortion, all sorts of liberties, are in everybody's mind, it makes no sense that only the (cancer) patient would be considered and treated as unemancipated and that 'in his own interest' he would be kept ignorant about what he is up against. All elements must be presented to him, thus enabling him to make his own decision in a conscious way and with full knowledge of the facts - a decision of life and death, for that matter!

The side-effects of chemotherapy drugs are generally categorized in the medical studies as follows, according to their 'site of action' :

1. DIGESTIVE UPSETS (NAUSEA, VOMITING, ANOREXIA, STOMATITIS, DIARRHOEA, ETC.):
SCHEIN, P.S., MACDONALS, J.S., WATERS, C., HAIDAK,D., Nutritional complications of cancer and its treatment, Semin. Oncol., Dec. 1975; 2 (4): 337-347; DREIZEN, S., Stomatotoxic manifestations of cancer chemotherapy, J. Prosthet. Dent., Dec. 1978; HYSON, E.A., BURRELL, M., TOFFLER, R., Drug-induced gastro intestinal disease, Gastrointest. Radiol., 20 Dec. 1977; 2 (3): 183-212; OHNOMA, T., HOLLAND, J.F., Nutritional consequences of cancer chemotherapy and immunotherapy, Cancer Res., July 1977, 37 (7 Pt 2): 2395-2406; N.N., Cancer chemotherapy the inbuilt deterrent, Br. Med. J., 24 Nov. 1979; 2 (6201): 1312-1313; SCHUM, C.A., IZUTSU, K.T., MOLBO, D.M., TRUELOVE, E.L., GALLUCCI,B., Changes in salivary buffer capacity in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy, J. Oral. Med., Jul-Sept., 1979; 34 (3): 76-80; SCOGNA, D.M., SMALLEY, R.V., Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, Am J. Nurs., Sept. 1979; 79 (9): 1562-1564; KENNEDY, M., PACKARD, R., GRANT, M.M., PADILLA, G.V., Chemotherapy related nausea and vomiting: a survey to identify problems and interventions, Oncol. Nurs. Forum, Winter 1981; 8 (1): 19-22.

2. AFFECTIONS OF THE SKIN AND MUCUOUS MEMBRANE (ALL SORTS OF AFFECTIONS, NAIL DAMAGE, ALOPECIA, ETC.):
NIXON, D.W, Alterations in nail pigment with cancer chemotherapy, Arch. Intern. Med., Oct. 1976; 136 (10): 1117-1118; DREIZEN, S., BODEY, G.P., RODRIGUEZ, V., McCREDIE, K.B., Cutaneous complications of cancer chemotherapy, Postgrad. Med., Nov. 1975; 58 (6): 150-158; BARAN, R., Pigmentation of the nail (chromonynchia), J. Dermatol. Surg. Oncol., Mar. 1978; 4 (3): 250-254; GAUCI, L., SERROU, B., Changes in hair pigmentation associated with cancer chemotherapy, Cancer Treat. Rep., Jan. 1980; 64 (1): 193.

3. HAEMATOPOIETIC ALTERATION (IMMUNO-DEPRESSION, BLOOD COMPOSITION ALTERATION, ETC.):
JEDRZEJCZAK, W.W., SIEKIERZYNSKI, M., CZARNECKI, C., DZIUK, E., Patterns of changes in peripheral blood composition in the course of combination chemotherapy of cancer, Strahlentherapie, Nov. 1976; 152 (5): 469-476; BODEY G.P., RODRIGUEZ, V., McCREDIE, K.B., FREIREICH, E.J., Neutropenia and infection following cancer chemotherapy, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys., Jan. - Feb. 1976; 1 (3-4): 301-304; VAN DER HOEVEN, L., CHANG, J.C., Disorders of granulocytes induced by toxic agents, Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci., Sept. - Oct. 1976; 6 (5): 415-422; TATTERSHALL, M.H., Aggressive cancer treatment and its role in predisposing to infection, Eur. J. Cancer, Aug. 1975; 11 Suppl.: 9-19; RENOUX, M., BERNARD, J.F., TORRES, M., SCHLEGEL, N., AMAR, M., LOPEZ, M., BOIVIN, P., Erythrocyte abnormalities induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy: induction of pre leukaemic state., Scand. J. Hematol., Oct. 1978; 21 (4): 323-332; FERRARO, E.F., Implications of anti neoplastic therapy, Dent. Surv., Febr. 1978; 54 (2): 32-33; MASON, B.A., KLUG, P.P., COHEN, P., Bone marrow necrosis during chemotherapy for lymphoma, J.A.M.A., 20 Mar. 1978; 239 (12): 1158; BADHURI, S., RASHE, H., KÖHLE, W., DIETRICH, M., Blutgerinnungsstudien bei Patienten mit akuter Leukämie vor und nach zytostatischer Chemotherapie, Verh. Dtsch. Ges. Inn. Med., 17-21 Apr. 1977; 83: 1142-1144; KAKISHITA, E., YOSHIMURA, S., Influence of anti cancer chemotherapy on haemostatic mechanism (Japanese), Rinsho Byori, Dec. 1977, 25 (12): 985-991; NERI, A., BRUGIATELLI, M., COMIS, M., IACOB, P., NOBILE, F., PACIUCCI, P.A., LOMBARDO, V.T., Severe acute hyperkalaemia following chemotherapy, Haematologica (Pavia), Jun. 197 ***; 62 (3): 331-332; KREPLER, P., Infections in children with malignant disease, Wien. Klin. Wochenschr., 9 Nov. 1979; 91 (21): 707-71 *** ; RYBALBA, A.M., Prevention and treatment of haemapoietic disorders during the chemotherapy of malignant ovarian tumours (Ukranian), Pedriatr. Akush. Ginekol., Sept. - Oct. 1979; (5): 45-46; ETIEMBLE, J., BERNARD, J.F., PICAT, C., BELPOMME, D., BOIVIN, P., Red blood cell enzyme abnormalities in patients treated with chemotherapy, Br. J. Haematol., Jul. 1979; 42 (3): 391-398: HAROUSSEAU, J.L., TOBELEM, G., SCHAISON, G., JACQUILLAT, C., Leucémies aigues lymphoblastiques hyperleucocytaires: problèmes d'urgence au cours du traitement initial, Nouv. Presse Méd., 19 May 1979; 8 (22): 1827-1830; LY, B., SOLHEIM, B.G., SKAR, A.G., Granulocytopenia and infections during induction therapy of acute leukaemia (Norwegian), Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen, Febr. 1981; 101 (6): 379-386.

4. AFFECTION OF THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS (STERILITY, IMPOTENCE, AZOOSPERMIA, AMENORRHEA, GYNECOMASTIA, ETC.):
RUSSEL, J.A., POWLES, R.L., OLIVER, R.T., Conception and congenital abnormalities after chemotherapy of acute myelogenous leukaemia in two men, Br. Med. J., 19 Jun. 1976; 1 (6024): 1508; SIRIS, E.S., LEVENTHAL, B.G., VAITUKAITIS, J.L., Effects of childhood leukaemia and chemotherapy on puberty and reproductive function in girls, N. Engl. J. Med., 20 May 1976; 294 (21): 1143-1146; ASBJORNSEN, G., MOLNE, K., KLEPP, O., AAKVAAG, A., Testicular function after combination chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease, Scand. J. Haematol., Jan. 1976; 16 (1): 66-69; DI LIBERTI, J.H., Teratogenesis and chemotherapy, Ann. Intern. Med., Nov. 1974; 81 (5): 709; SUTCLIFFE, S.B., Cytotoxex chemotherapy and gonadal function in patients with Hodgkin's disease, J.A.M.A., 26 Oct. 1979; 242 (17): 1898-1899; CHAPMAN, R.M., SUTCLIFFE, S.B., MALPAS, J.S., Cytotoxic-induced ovarian failure in Hodgkin's disease. Effects on sexual function, J.A.M.A., 26 Oct. 1979; 242 (17): 1882-1884; GLASS, A.R., BERENBERG, J., Gynecomastia after chemotherapy for lymphoma, Arch. Intern. Med., Sept. 1979; 139 (9): 1048-1049; RUSTIN, G.J., BAGSHAWE, K.D., NEWLANDS, E.S., BEGENT, R.H., Cytotoxic drugs and sterility, Lancet, 13 Jun. 1981; 1 (8233): 1316; THORNELDE, W.F., Cytotoxic-induced ovarian failure in Hodgkin's disease, J.A.M.A., 1 Aug. 1980; 244 (5): 435.

5. RENAL AND LIVER DAMAGE:
JAYABOSE, S., SHENDE, A., LANZKOWSKY, P., Hepatotoxicity of chemotherapy following nephrectomy and radiation therapy for right-sided Willms tumour, J. Pediatr., May 1976; 88 (5): 898; KANFER, A., ROLAND, J., CHATELET, F., RICHET, G., Insuffisance rénale aigue hyperphosphatémique au cours d'un lymphosarcome, J. Urol. Nephrol., (Paris), Apr. - May 1979; 85 (4-5): 337.

6. IMPAIRMENT OF THE OSSEOUS (SKELETAL) SYSTEM:
IHDE, D.C., DEVITA, V.T., Osteonecrosis of the femoral head in patients with lymphoma treated with intermittent combination chemotherapy, Cancer, Nov. 1975; 36 (5): 1585-1588.

7. PULMONARY DISEASES:
KÜHBÖCK, S., Lungenfibrosen nach Behandlung mit Zytostatika, Wien. Med. Wochenschr., 1 Oct. 1976; 126 (40): 568-570; CAUBARRERE, I., Les pneumopathies infectueuses au cours de la chimiothérapie des hémopathies malignes, Rev. Prat., 21 May 1976; 26 (29): 2051-2060; SIZOD, W., WOLVIUS, G.G., Pneumocystis-pneumonie als complicatie bij cytostatische therapie, Nederl. Tijdschr. Geneeskunde, 6 Mar. 1976; 120 (10): 418-424; SAUER, E., GULLOTTA, U., FINK, U., Akute beidseitige Lungeninfiltration als Komplikation der Zytostatischen Therapie, Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr., 10 Oct. 1975; 100 (41): 2098-2101; OKITA, H., ITO, K., TAKETOMI, Y., FUJIMURA, K., KURAMOTO, A., Four patients with leukaemia who showed especially a typical type of interstitial pneumonia, probably caused following the administration of anti-leukaemic drugs (Japanese), Jpn. J. Clin. Hematol., 30 Jul. 1974; 15 (7): 764-773; HERMANSKY, F., BENESOVA, E., CHMEL, J., JIRAK, A., Pulmonary complications caused by cytostatic treatment (Czech), Vnitr. Lek., Jun. 1977; 23 (7): 695-701; DEMETER, S.L., AHAMD, M., TOMASHEKSKI, J.F., Drug-induced pulmonary disease, Cleve. Clin. Q., Fall 1979; 46 (3): 113-124; ZHU, G.Y., Acute pulmonary edema during chemotherapy of late stage tumors (Chinese), Chung Hua Chieh Ho Ho Hu Hsi Hsi Chi Ping Tsa Chih, Dec. 1980; 3 (4): 201-202.

8. MUTAGENIC (CANCER-CAUSING) CHANGES:
MAJSKY, A., JAKOUBKOVA, J., ABRAHAMOVA, J., Chemotherapy one of the causes of transient loss of HLA antigens and lymphocyte poly-reactivity in patients with blood diseases and malignancies, J. Immunogenet., Dec. 1976; 3 (6): 429-433; ROSS, G.T., Congenital anomalies among children born of mothers receiving chemotherapy for gestational trophoblastic neoplasms, Cancer, Feb. 1976; 37 (2 Suppl.): 1043-1047; POLEKSIC, S., YEUNG, K.Y., Rapid development of keratoancanthoma and accelerated transformation into squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: a mutagenic effect of polychemotherapy in a patient with Hodgkin's disease, Cancer, Jan. 1978; 41 (1): 12-16; SCHAISON, G., JACQUILLAT, C., AUCLERC, G., WEIL, M., Les risques foeto-embryonnaires des chimiothérapies, Bull. Cancer (Paris), 1979; 66 (2): 165-170; SAKALOVA, A., BENKO, J., IZAKOVIC, V., Anti tumorous therapy and its consequences upon gravidity and foetus (Slovakian), Cesk. Gynekol., May 1979; 44 (4): 272-276; SCHADER, A.I., Teratogenic effects of anti leukaemia chemotherapy, Arch. Intern. Med., Mar. 1981; 141 (4): 514-515; KAEMPFER, S.H., The effects of cancer chemotherapy on reproduction: a review of the literature, Oncol. Nurs. Forum, Winter 1981; 8 (1): 11-18.

9. CANCER-PRODUCING SIDE-EFFECTS:
HAQUE, T., LUTCHER, C., FAGUET, G., TALLEDI, O., Chemotherapy-associated acute myelogenous leukaemia and ovarian carcinoma, Am. J. Med. Sci., Sept. - Oct. 1976; 272 (2): 225-228; JOCHIMSEN, P.R., PEARLMAN, N.W., LAWTON, R.L., Pancreatic carcinoma as a sequel to therapy of lymphoma, J. Surg. Oncol., 1976; 8 (6): 461-464; SEIDENFELD, A.M., SMYTHE, H.A., OGRYZLO, M.A., UROWITZ, M.B., DOTTEN, D.A., Acute leukaemia in rheumatoid arthritis treated with cytotoxic agents, J. Rheumatol., Sept. 1976; 3 (3): 295-304; ROBERTS, M.M., Acute leukaemia after immunosuppressive therapy, Lancet, 9 Oct. 1976; 2 (7989): 768-770; KUIS, W., DE KRAKER, J., KUIJTEN, R.H., DONCKERWOLCKE, R.A., VOUTE, P.A., Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia after treatment of nephrotic syndrome with immunosuppressive drugs, Helv. Paediatr. Acta, Jun. 1976; 31 (1): 91-95; NAESS, K., Cancer of the pancreas chemically induced. Can drugs play a role? (Norwegian), Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen, 10 Jun. 1976; 96(16): 949; STECHMILLER, B., WIERNIK, P.H., SHIN, M., SATTERFIELD, J., Metastatic teratocarcinoma following chemotherapy. Maturation to a mass pathologically indistinguishable from a mediastinal enteric cyst, Chest, May 1976; 69 (5): 697-700; JAFFE, N., Late side-effects of treatment: skeletal, genetic, central nervous system and oncogenic, Pediatr. Clin. N. Am., Feb. 1976; 23 (1): 233-244; MEADOWS, A.T., D'ANGIO, G.J., EVANS, A.E., HARRIS, C.C., MILLER, R.W., MIKE, V., Oncogenesis and other late effects of cancer treatment in children, Radiology, Jan. 1975; 114 (1): 175-180; SCHWARZ, J.H., CANELLOS, G.P., YOUNG, R.C., DEVITA, V.T. Jr., Meningeal leukaemia in the blastic phase of chronic granulocytic leukaemia, Am. J. Med., Dec. 1975, 59 (6): 819-829; TERRACINI, B., Il ruolo di alcuni farmaci nell'ezioologia dei tumori delle vie urinarie, Cancro, 1973; 26 (3): 185-188; LI, F.P., CASSADY, J.R., JAFFE, N., Risk of second tumours in survivors of childhood cancer, Cancer, Apr. 1975: 35 (4): 1230-1235; CARTER, S.K., Second tumours complicating cancer therapy, Haematol. Bluttransfus., 1978; 22: 41-44; BOIVIN, P., Les leucémies induites par la radiothérapie ou par la chimiothérapie peuvent-elles êtres prévues? Nouv. Presse Méd., 9 Sept. 1979; 7 (29): 2533-2534; LEGLER, F., Karzinogenese durch Schadstoffe aus der Umwelt, Pharmaka und Ernährungsgewohnheiten, Oeff. Gesundheitswes., Oct. 1978; 40 (10): 653-662; SCHULER, D., Iatrogenic carcinogenesis (Hungarian), Orv. Hetil., 10 Sept. 1978; 119 (37): 2239-2243; ROSNER, F., Is chemotherapy carcinogenic?, Cancer, Jan. Feb. 1978; 28 (1): 57-59; PENN, I., Malignancies associated with immunosuppressive or cytotoxic therapy, Surgery, May 1978; 83 (5): 492-502; NIEWEG, H.O., Iatrogene leukaemie, Nederl. Tijdschr. Geneesk., 25 Mar. 1978; 122 (12): 398-401; MULDER, N.H., HOUWEN, B., Behandelen en vooruitzien. Acute leukaemie na behandeling van een andere kwaadaardige ziekte, Nederl. Tijdschr. Geneesk., 25 Mar. 1978; 122 (12): 385-399; ERSKINE, J.G., WANG, I., HUTTON, M.M., Chronic granulocytic leukemia developing upon a follicular lymphoma, Br. Med. J., 19 Nov. 1977; 2 (6098): 1329; CADMAN, E.C., CAPIZZI, R.L., BERTINO, J.R., Acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia: a delayed complication of Hodgkin's disease therapy: analysis of 109 cases, Cancer, Sept. 1977; 40 (3): 1280-1296; CHABNER, B.A., Second neoplasm a complication of cancer chemotherapy, N. Engl. J. Med., 28 Jul. 1977, 297 (4): 213-215; KURTIDES, E.S., Breast cancer, chemotherapy and second malignant neoplasms, J.A.M.A., 4 Jul. 1977; 238 (1): 28-29; WOLF, M.M., COOPER, I.A., DING, J.C., Hodgkin's disease terminating in acute leukaemia: a report of seven cases, Austr. N. Z. J. Med., Aug. 1979; 9 (4): 398-402; KAHN, M.F., ARLET, J., BLOCH-MICHEL, H., CAROIT, M., CHAOUAT, Y., RENIER, J.C., Leucémies aigues après traitement par agents cytotoxiques en rhumatologie. 19 observations chez 2006 patients, Nouv. Presse Méd., 14 Apr. 1979; 8 (17): 1393-1397; PENN, I., Leukaemias and lymphomas associated with the use of cytotoxic and immunosuppressive drugs, Cancer Res., 1979; 69: 7-13; JOUET, J.P.,HUART, J.J., BAUTERS, F., GOUDEMAND, M., Leucémies aigues complicant la maladie de Hodgkin. Cinq nouvelles observations, Nouv. Presse Méd., 17 Feb. 1979; 8 (8): 613-614; DANO, K., FORCHHAMMER, J., Carcinogenesis and drugs (Danish), Ugeskr. Laeger., Aug. 1981; 143 (35): 2246-2247; FARBER, E., Chemical carcinogenesis, N. Engl. J. Med., 3 Dec. 1981; 305 (23): 1379-1389; STEWART, A.L., WILKINSON, P.M., Rapid onset of acute myeloid leukaemia following radiotherapy and chemotherapy for metastatic seminoma of the testis, J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol., 1981; 100 (1): 109-111; HOOVER, R., FRAUMENI, J.F., Jr., Drug-induced cancer, Cancer, 1 Mar. 1981; 47 (5 Suppl.): 1071-1080; BLANC, A.P., GASTAUT, J.A., SEBAHOUN, G., DALIVOUST, P., MURISASCO, A., CARCASSONNE, Y., Naissance d'une leucémie aigue au décours d'un traitement immunosupprésseur par le chlorambucil. Une observation, Nouv. Presse Méd., May 1981; 10 (21): 1717-1719; CORDIER, J.F., TOURAINE, R., Cancers épidermoides du poumon chez un patient traité pour cancer aplasique à petites cellules. La chimiothérapie favorise-t-elle le développement de cancers d'un autre type histologique?, Nouv. Presse Méd., 9 May 1981; 10 (21): 1713-1716; ASBORNSEN, G., GODAL, H.C., MYHRE, K., Acute myelogenous leukaemia after cytostatic therapy in breast cancer (Norwegian), Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen, Feb. 1981; 101 (6): 387-388; PENN, I. Immunosuppression and skin cancer, Clin. Plast. Surg., Jul. 1980, 7 (3): 361-368; CHAN, K.W., MILLER, D.R., TAN, C.T., Osteosarcoma and acute myeloblastic leukaemia after therapy for childhood Hodgkin's disease - a case report, Med. Pediatr. Oncol., 1980; 8 (2): 143-149; MAHOMED, Y., MANDEL, M.A., CRAMER, S.F., MICHEL, B., Squamous cell carcinoma arising in pemphigus vulgaris during immunosuppressive therapy, Cancer, 15 Sept. 1980; 46 (6): 1374-1377; DOHY, H., GENOT, J.Y., IMBERT, M., D'AGAY, M.F., SULTAN, C., Myelodysplasia and leukaemia related to chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy: a haematological study of 13 cases. Value of macrocytosis as an early sign of bone marrow injury, Clin. Lab. Haematol., 1980, 2 (2): 111-119.

10. IMPAIRMENT OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM:
SHERKOW, L.H., Chemotherapeutic neurotoxicity on brain scintigraphy, Clin. Nucl. Med., Oct. 1979; 4 (10): 439-440.

11. CARDIOTOXICITY:
KAYE, S.B., IKRAM, H., Acute cardiac pain and electrocardiographic changes following cytotoxic treatment for metastatic carcinoma, Clin. Oncol., Sept. 1976; 2 (3): 215-218; WEINSTEIN, P., GREENWALD, E.S., GROSSMAN, J., Unusual cardiac reaction to chemotherapy following mediastinal irradiation in a patient with Hodgkin's disease, Am. J. Med., Jan. 1976; 60 (1): 152-156; APPELBAUM, F., STRAUCHEN, J.A., GRAW, R.G. Jr., SAVAGE, D.D., KENT, K.M., FERRANS, V.J., HERZIG, G.P., Acute lethal carditis caused by high-dose combination chemotherapy. A unique clinical and pathological entity, Lancet, 10 Jan. 1976; 1 (7950): 58-62; GHIONE, M., Effetti tossici dei farmaci antitumorali sul sistema cardiovascolare, Recent Prog. Med. (Roma), Oct. 1977; 63 (4): 382-410; SZABO, G., KOVACS, A., Intra-arterial chemotherapy of head and neck tumours, Acta Chir. Acad. Sci. Hung., 1979; 20 (1): 49-55; GARIMOLDI, M., PIAZZA, E., BERTELLO, C., RUGGERI, P.R., LIBRETTI, A., Effetto della chemioterapia antiblastica su alcuni parametri cardiologice, Boll. Soc. Ital. Cardiol., 1978; 23 (10): 1785-1790.

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Further resources:
The ABC's of Disease by Phillip Day
Cancer: Why We're Still Dying to Know the Truth… by Phillip Day
Health Wars by Phillip Day
Great News on Cancer in the 21st Century by Steven Ransom
B17 Metabolic Therapy compiled by Phillip Day



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